Fuel Type for Chandrayaan 3 Mission


India’s ambitious Chandrayaan 3 mission is poised to achieve multiple milestones in the realm of space exploration. As the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) gears up for this significant lunar mission, one crucial aspect that draws attention is the fuel type to be used in powering the spacecraft.

Hydrolox Propellant: The Key to Success

Hydrolox, short for hydrogen and oxygen, stands out as the primary fuel type for the Chandrayaan 3 mission. Known for its high efficiency and clean burning characteristics, hydrolox propellant offers a competitive advantage in achieving the mission’s objectives with precision and minimal environmental impact.

Hydrogen: A Lightweight Powerhouse

Hydrogen, the first component of hydrolox, is a lightweight, colorless, and odorless gas with impressive energy potential. When combined with oxygen in the combustion process, hydrogen delivers a powerful thrust that propels the spacecraft toward its intended destination with utmost efficiency.

Oxygen: The Oxidizer for Success

Oxygen, the second component of hydrolox, plays a critical role as the oxidizer in facilitating combustion with hydrogen. By supplying the necessary oxidation for the reaction, oxygen ensures a controlled and sustainable burning process that sustains propulsion throughout the mission.

Advantages of Hydrolox Propellant

  • High Specific Impulse: Hydrolox propellant offers a high specific impulse, which translates to better fuel efficiency and prolonged thrust capability essential for navigating the spacecraft through the complexities of space travel.

  • Clean Burning: Hydrolox combustion results in clean emissions, making it an environmentally friendly choice compared to traditional propellant types. This aligns with ISRO’s commitment to sustainable practices in space exploration.

  • Precise Control: The use of hydrolox propellant enables precise control over thrust levels, maneuverability, and trajectory adjustments, allowing for intricate operations and maneuvers during the mission.

Challenges and Solutions

While hydrolox propellant offers a range of benefits, it also presents unique challenges that ISRO’s engineers and scientists have meticulously addressed:

  • Cryogenic Handling: Hydrogen, being a cryogenic fuel, requires specialized storage and handling mechanisms to maintain its ultra-low temperatures. ISRO has developed robust cryogenic technologies to ensure the safe and efficient utilization of hydrolox propellant.

  • Complexity of Engine Design: The design of engines optimized for hydrolox combustion demands intricate engineering solutions to maximize performance and reliability. ISRO’s propulsion experts have developed cutting-edge engine designs tailored for the specific requirements of the Chandrayaan 3 mission.


  1. What is the significance of using hydrolox propellant in Chandrayaan 3?
    Using hydrolox propellant offers superior efficiency, cleanliness, and precise control, essential for the success of the mission.

  2. How does hydrogen contribute to propulsion in the spacecraft?
    Hydrogen, when combined with oxygen, undergoes combustion to produce a powerful thrust that propels the spacecraft forward.

  3. What are the advantages of clean burning associated with hydrolox propellant?
    Clean burning minimizes environmental impact and aligns with sustainable space exploration practices.

  4. How does ISRO address the challenges of cryogenic handling in using hydrolox propellant?
    ISRO employs specialized cryogenic technologies to safely store and handle hydrogen, ensuring optimal fuel conditions.

  5. What complexities are involved in designing engines for hydrolox combustion?
    Designing engines for hydrolox combustion requires intricate engineering solutions to maximize performance and reliability throughout the mission.

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